Community solar programs have become increasingly popular in the U.S. because they provide access to solar without the complexities of installing, owning, and operating individual systems. However, the expansion of community solar faces challenges of replicability across different states, utility territories, and solar market types. Many models have emerged with varying degrees of regulatory and market frameworks supporting them and little consistency exists on how programs are administered, participant benefits are assigned, and customers are charged.
While it is assumed that community solar meets the needs of customers, no comprehensive or comparative research has been conducted on the various models and costs. To date, the benefits of community solar are largely based on anecdotal evidence. The Smart Electric Power Alliance (SEPA) is working to spark the growth of community solar models that are more closely aligned with the needs and interests of consumers and stakeholders.
In an effort to produce a range of more standardized, streamlined, and cost-effective business models that can be easily localized for different regions across the country, the project team researched and compared models, conducted consumer market research, and disseminated research results to solar industry stakeholders. Research on community solar models was driven by a working group made up of diverse stakeholders including utilities, solar industry representatives, state governments, nongovernmental organizations, and consumer advocacy organizations.
Through the standardization of community solar models and a better understanding of customer interest, SEPA aimed to further encourage and enable the expansion of community solar deployment nationwide.
The SEPA project was driven by a working group comprised of representatives from utilities, nonprofits, and the solar industry. As part of the initiation process, the SEPA team developed a definition of community solar: voluntary rooftop alternatives for groups of participants, where supply is most often provided by a larger, ground-mounted PV system, and participants are involved in a two-way transaction. The SEPA team solicited feedback from working group members to hone programmatic attributes and the program design process with the goal of creating several comprehensive community solar models capable of functioning in a variety of circumstances.
This report provides an overview of community solar program models through 12 key design decisions and discusses what options are most prevalent. Case studies of each model type are provided.
Key report takeaways:
Customers view community solar—which requires customer involvement in order to function—as an optional electricity product. For it to “sell,” subscribers need to want it. To date, there has been very little research examining what exactly subscribers want from a program. SEPA and the Shelton Group conducted a nationwide survey and hosted a set of focus groups designed to tease out the preferences of potential community solar customers. SEPA began this effort by hosting focus groups to discover which value propositions resonate with potential community solar customers and which trade-offs customers are most willing to make. SEPA’s market research is one of the first and most comprehensive efforts to understand consumer preferences on community solar.
This report highlights findings from two new surveys of American energy customers regarding solar energy, with a focus on community solar.
SEPA took the lessons learned from this research and implemented them in several technical assistance efforts with eight utilities—three nonprofits, three investor-owned utilities, and two public power utilities—interested in modifying their current model or adopting one of the newly standardized community solar models. SEPA assisted these organizations in developing and executing marketing plans, analyzing the financials of various community solar program designs, and conducting and interpreting customer surveys. Ultimately, these technical assistance engagements will result in the installation of at least 4MW of new solar.
Part of the technical assistance provided to these organizations was a SEPA survey of over 6,000 potential residential and commercial community solar subscribers. Each survey was customized to match the organization’s needs and collect information on potential subscribers’ understanding of and interest in a community solar program. One high-level takeaway from these surveys is the high demand for solar ownership—over 80% of survey participants indicated an interest in community solar.